top of page

## Q1- How can you figure out how many diluted shares are in outstanding?

Suggested Answer: To determine the number of diluted shares outstanding, you will need to know the total number of shares outstanding and the dilutive securities that are potentially convertible into shares. Dilutive securities are financial instruments that may potentially increase the number of shares outstanding, such as stock options, warrants, and convertible bonds.

To calculate the number of diluted shares outstanding, you can use the following formula:

Diluted shares outstanding = (Shares outstanding) + (Dilutive securities / Conversion ratio)

Where:

• Shares outstanding is the total number of shares of stock currently held by all shareholders, including restricted shares that are not yet available for trading.

• Dilutive securities are the financial instruments that have the potential to convert into shares, such as stock options and warrants.

• Conversion ratio is the number of shares that each dilutive security can be converted into. For example, if a stock option has a conversion ratio of 1:5, it means that each option can be converted into 5 shares.

For example, let's say a company has 10 million shares outstanding and 500,000 stock options with a conversion ratio of 1:5. To calculate the diluted shares outstanding, we would use the following formula:

Diluted shares outstanding = (10 million shares) + (500,000 options / 5) = 10.5 million shares

This means that if all the dilutive securities were to be converted into shares, the company would have 10.5 million diluted shares outstanding.

It's important to note that not all dilutive securities will necessarily be converted into shares. For example, if the stock price is below the exercise price of a stock option, the option holder may not choose to exercise their options. In this case, the options would not be included in the diluted shares outstanding calculation.

## Q2- When Does when EPS Become Negative?

Suggested Answer: Earnings per share (EPS) is a measure of a company's profitability that is calculated by dividing the company's net income by the number of outstanding shares. EPS can be either positive or negative, depending on whether the company has made a profit or a loss.

EPS becomes negative when a company incurs a net loss, which means that its expenses are greater than its revenues. For example, if a company has revenues of \$100,000 and expenses of \$110,000, it would have a net loss of \$10,000. If the company has 10,000 shares outstanding, its EPS would be negative, calculated as follows:

EPS = Net income / Shares outstanding = (-\$10,000) / 10,000 = -\$1

In this example, the company has a negative EPS of \$1 per share. This means that the company has lost money and is not generating profits for its shareholders.

It's important to note that a negative EPS does not necessarily indicate that a company is in financial trouble. Some companies, particularly those in the early stages of growth, may incur losses as they invest in research and development or expand their operations. However, if a company consistently has a negative EPS, it may be a cause for concern and investors may want to closely monitor the company's financial performance.

## Q3- Using the If-converted approach, how do you calculate the number of fully diluted shares outstanding?

Suggested Answer: The if-converted approach is a method used to calculate the number of fully diluted shares outstanding, which represents the total number of shares that would be outstanding if all dilutive securities were converted into shares. Dilutive securities are financial instruments that have the potential to increase the number of outstanding shares, such as stock options, warrants, and convertible bonds.

To calculate the number of fully diluted shares outstanding using the if-converted approach, you will need to know the total number of shares outstanding and the dilutive securities that are potentially convertible into shares. You can use the following formula:

Fully diluted shares outstanding = (Shares outstanding) + (Dilutive securities / Conversion ratio)

Where:

• Shares outstanding is the total number of shares of stock currently held by all shareholders, including restricted shares that are not yet available for trading.

• Dilutive securities are the financial instruments that have the potential to convert into shares, such as stock options and warrants.

• Conversion ratio is the number of shares that each dilutive security can be converted into. For example, if a stock option has a conversion ratio of 1:5, it means that each option can be converted into 5 shares.

For example, let's say a company has 10 million shares outstanding and 500,000 stock options with a conversion ratio of 1:5. To calculate the fully diluted shares outstanding, we would use the following formula:

Fully diluted shares outstanding = (10 million shares) + (500,000 options / 5) = 10.5 million shares

This means that if all the dilutive securities were to be converted into shares, the company would have 10.5 million fully diluted shares outstanding.

It's important to note that not all dilutive securities will necessarily be converted into shares. For example, if the stock price is below the exercise price of a stock option, the option holder may not choose to exercise their options. In this case, the options would not be included in the fully diluted shares outstanding calculation.

## Q4- How Net Share Settlement Calculation of Fully Diluted Shares Outstanding?

Suggested Answer: Net share settlement is a method used to calculate the number of fully diluted shares outstanding when a company issues stock options or other dilutive securities. In a net share settlement, the company issues the number of shares necessary to cover the exercise price of the dilutive securities, rather than issuing cash.

To calculate the number of fully diluted shares outstanding using the net share settlement method, you will need to know the total number of shares outstanding and the dilutive securities that are being settled. You can use the following formula:

Fully diluted shares outstanding = (Shares outstanding) + (Dilutive securities settled / Conversion ratio)

Where:

• Shares outstanding is the total number of shares of stock currently held by all shareholders, including restricted shares that are not yet available for trading.

• Dilutive securities settled are the number of dilutive securities that are being settled through the issuance of shares.

• Conversion ratio is the number of shares that each dilutive security can be converted into. For example, if a stock option has a conversion ratio of 1:5, it means that each option can be converted into 5 shares.

For example, let's say a company has 10 million shares outstanding and 500,000 stock options with a conversion ratio of 1:5 are being settled through net share settlement. To calculate the fully diluted shares outstanding, we would use the following formula:

Fully diluted shares outstanding = (10 million shares) + (500,000 options / 5) = 10.5 million shares

This means that if all the dilutive securities are settled through the issuance of shares, the company would have 10.5 million fully diluted shares outstanding.

It's important to note that not all dilutive securities will necessarily be settled through net share settlement. For example, if the stock price is below the exercise price of a stock option, the option holder may not choose to exercise their options. In this case, the options would not be included in the fully diluted shares outstanding calculation.

## Q5- What is the definition of a valuation multiple?

Suggested Answer: A valuation multiple is a financial ratio that is used to compare the value of a company to one of its financial metrics, such as earnings or revenue. Valuation multiples are commonly used to determine the relative value of a company's stock or to compare the valuation of different companies in the same industry.

There are many different types of valuation multiples, including price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio, price-to-sales (P/S) ratio, and price-to-book (P/B) ratio. Each valuation multiple is calculated by dividing the market value of the company's stock or enterprise value by a specific financial metric.

For example, the P/E ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of the company's stock by its earnings per share (EPS). The P/S ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of the company's stock by its revenue. And the P/B ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of the company's stock by its book value, which is the value of the company's assets minus its liabilities.

Valuation multiples can be useful in comparing the relative value of different companies, but they should be used with caution. Different industries and businesses have different financial characteristics, and comparison using valuation multiples may not always be appropriate. It is important to consider a variety of factors, including the company's growth prospects, competitive landscape, and financial stability, when evaluating the value of a company.

## Q6- A company trades at a 10x EV/EBITDA value ratio (based on its Current Enterprise Value). What exactly does that indicate?

Suggested Answer: The enterprise value (EV) to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) ratio is a valuation multiple that is used to compare the value of a company to its earnings before certain expenses. It is calculated by dividing the company's enterprise value by its EBITDA.

In this case, if a company is trading at a 10x EV/EBITDA value ratio, it means that the market values the company's earnings before certain expenses at 10 times its enterprise value. Enterprise value is a measure of a company's value that includes not only its market capitalization, but also its debt and cash. EBITDA is a measure of a company's earnings that excludes certain expenses, such as interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization, which can vary significantly from one company to another.

A high EV/EBITDA ratio may indicate that the market values the company's earnings highly, while a low EV/EBITDA ratio may indicate that the market values the company's earnings less highly. However, it's important to note that the EV/EBITDA ratio is only one of many factors that can be used to evaluate the value of a company, and it should be considered in the context of other financial and non-financial factors.

For example, a company with a high EV/EBITDA ratio may be growing rapidly and have strong prospects for future earnings, while a company with a low EV/EBITDA ratio may be facing headwinds or have less favorable growth prospects. It is important to carefully consider a variety of factors, including the company's growth prospects, competitive landscape, and financial stability, when evaluating the value of a company.

## Q6- Which operational metric is most likely to have the closest correlation with EV/EBITDA multiples?

Suggested Answer: There are a variety of operational metrics that may have a close correlation with EV/EBITDA multiples, as different companies and industries have different financial characteristics. However, some operational metrics that are commonly used in conjunction with EV/EBITDA multiples include:

• Revenue growth: Revenue growth is a measure of the increase in a company's sales over a period of time, and it can be an important factor in determining the value of a company. Companies with strong revenue growth may be perceived as having strong growth prospects and may command higher EV/EBITDA multiples.

• Profit margin: Profit margin is a measure of a company's profitability, calculated as the company's net income divided by its revenue. Companies with high profit margins may be perceived as having a strong competitive advantage and may command higher EV/EBITDA multiples.

• Return on investment (ROI): ROI is a measure of the efficiency of a company's investments, calculated as the company's net income divided by its total investments. Companies with high ROI may be perceived as having a strong ability to generate returns on their investments and may command higher EV/EBITDA multiples.

• Cash flow: Cash flow is a measure of the amount of cash a company generates from its operations, and it can be an important factor in determining the value of a company. Companies with strong cash flow may be perceived as being financially stable and may command higher EV/EBITDA multiples.

It's important to note that EV/EBITDA multiples are only one of many factors that can be used to evaluate the value of a company, and it is important to consider a variety of financial and non-financial factors when evaluating a company.

## Q7- What does the exchange have to offer?

Suggested Answer: In the context of mergers and acquisitions (M&A), an exchange is a platform or marketplace where securities, such as stocks and bonds, are traded. Exchanges typically offer a range of services to facilitate the buying and selling of securities, including providing a marketplace for buyers and sellers to find each other, establishing rules and regulations for the trading of securities, and providing transparency and liquidity to the market.

In the context of M&A, exchanges can play a number of roles. For example:

• Exchanges can serve as a venue for companies to raise capital through the issuance of securities.

• Exchanges can provide liquidity to shareholders by allowing them to sell their shares to other investors.

• Exchanges can facilitate the trading of securities as part of an M&A transaction, allowing buyers and sellers to find each other and negotiate deals.

• Exchanges can provide information and data about the market and the companies listed on the exchange, which can be useful for M&A professionals as they evaluate potential targets or assess the value of their own company.

• Exchanges can also establish rules and regulations that apply to M&A transactions, including requirements for disclosure and transparency, which can help to ensure that transactions are conducted in a fair and orderly manner.

## Q8- Did a valuation analysis to see how much would the common stockholders and preferred stockholders get in the current company without the recapitalization?

Suggested Answer: A valuation analysis is a process used to determine the value of a company or its securities, such as common stock or preferred stock. A valuation analysis can be conducted for a variety of purposes, including to determine the value of a company in the context of a merger or acquisition, to assess the value of a company's stock for investment purposes, or to determine the value of a company's assets in the context of a bankruptcy or other restructuring.

If you are conducting a valuation analysis to determine how much common and preferred stockholders would receive in the current company without recapitalization, there are a few steps you can follow:

1. Determine the value of the company's assets: The first step in a valuation analysis is to determine the value of the company's assets, including its tangible assets (such as property, plant, and equipment) and intangible assets (such as patents and trademarks). This can be done through a variety of methods, such as asset valuation or discounted cash flow analysis.

2. Determine the company's liabilities: Next, you will need to determine the company's liabilities, including its debts, obligations, and other financial commitments. This will help you to determine the company's net asset value, which is the value of the company's assets minus its liabilities.

3. Determine the value of the company's common and preferred stock: Once you have determined the net asset value of the company, you can use this information to determine the value of the company's common and preferred stock. The value of common stock is typically based on the net asset value of the company, while the value of preferred stock may also be influenced by factors such as the dividend rate and the company's creditworthiness.

It's important to note that there are many different approaches and techniques that can be used to conduct a valuation analysis, and the specific method used will depend on the purpose of the analysis and the characteristics of the company being valued. It is also important to consider a variety of factors that may impact the value of the company, including its growth prospects, competitive landscape, and financial stability.

## Q9- What method would you use to forecast revenue?

Suggested Answer: There are a variety of methods that can be used to forecast revenue, and the specific method used will depend on the characteristics of the company and the data available. Some common methods for forecasting revenue include:

1. Time series analysis: Time series analysis is a method that uses historical data to forecast future outcomes. This method involves analyzing patterns in the data over time, such as trends, seasonality, and fluctuations, and using this information to make projections about the future.

2. Causal analysis: Causal analysis involves identifying the underlying drivers of revenue and using this information to forecast future outcomes. This method can be useful for companies that have a clear understanding of the factors that influence their revenue, such as changes in demand or pricing.

3. Machine learning: Machine learning is a method that involves using algorithms to analyze large amounts of data and make predictions about the future. This method can be useful for companies with large amounts of data, such as e-commerce companies, and can be particularly effective for forecasting revenue when combined with other methods, such as time series analysis or causal analysis.

It's important to note that no single method is perfect for forecasting revenue, and the most appropriate method will depend on the characteristics of the company and the data available. It may be useful to use a combination of methods and to test the accuracy of the forecasts over time to ensure that the forecasts are reliable.

## Q10- What is the difference between the NPV and XNPV Excel functions?

Suggested Answer: The net present value (NPV) and the extended net present value (XNPV) functions in Excel are financial functions that are used to calculate the present value of an investment or series of investments. Both functions use a discount rate to calculate the present value of the investment, taking into account the time value of money.

The main difference between the NPV and XNPV functions is the way in which they handle the timing of the cash flows. The NPV function assumes that the cash flows occur at regular intervals, such as annually or monthly, while the XNPV function allows you to specify the exact date of each cash flow.

For example, let's say you have an investment with the following cash flows:

Year 1: \$100 Year 2: \$200 Year 3: \$300

To calculate the NPV of this investment using a discount rate of 10%, you could use the following formula in Excel:

=NPV(0.1, 100, 200, 300)

The result would be the present value of the investment, taking into account the time value of money.

If the cash flows did not occur at regular intervals, you could use the XNPV function instead. For example, let's say the cash flows occurred on the following dates:

Date 1: 1/1/2022 Date 2: 3/1/2022 Date 3: 5/1

## Q11- What is a sensitivity analysis and how do you do it in Excel?

Suggested Answer: A sensitivity analysis is a tool used to examine how the variation in certain variables will impact the outcome of a financial model or decision. Sensitivity analysis is often used to identify the variables that have the greatest impact on the model or decision and to understand the range of possible outcomes.

There are a few different ways to perform a sensitivity analysis in Excel, depending on the specific needs of the analysis. Here are some common methods:

1. One-way sensitivity analysis: A one-way sensitivity analysis involves varying a single variable while holding all other variables constant, and observing the impact on the model or decision. This can be done using a variety of tools, such as a data table or a scenario analysis.

2. Two-way sensitivity analysis: A two-way sensitivity analysis involves varying two variables simultaneously, and observing the impact on the model or decision. This can be done using a variety of tools, such as a tornado chart or a matrix.

3. Monte Carlo simulation: Monte Carlo simulation is a statistical method that involves running a model multiple times with different combinations of inputs to generate a range of possible outcomes. This can be done using specialized software or with the use of certain Excel functions, such as the RAND function.

It's important to note that sensitivity analysis is only one tool that can be used to understand the potential outcomes of a financial model or decision, and it should be used in conjunction with other tools and analysis. It is also important to consider a variety of factors that may impact the results of the sensitivity analysis, including the assumptions used in the model and the uncertainty of the inputs.

## Q12- What do you think creates a solid financial model, in your opinion?

Suggested Answer: Creating a solid financial model requires a few key elements. Firstly, a comprehensive understanding of the business and the industry in which it operates. It is important to understand the drivers of the business and create assumptions based on your understanding. Secondly, it is important to use best practices in terms of model layout and design. This includes making sure that inputs and outputs are clearly distinguished, using consistent formatting throughout, and structuring the model in a logical, easy-to-follow design. Finally, it is important to stress test the model and audit it for accuracy. These are all essential for creating a solid financial model.

## Q13- During the normalisation process, what kinds of changes are required in financial modelling?

Suggested Answer: In financial modeling, normalization refers to the process of standardizing financial statements to make them more comparable. This can involve adjusting for differences in accounting practices, business sizes, or industry-specific factors.

Some specific changes that may be required during the normalization process in financial modeling include:

1. Adjusting for differences in accounting practices: Financial statements prepared using different accounting standards or practices may not be directly comparable. Normalization may involve adjusting financial statements to a common accounting standard or making other adjustments to make them comparable.

2. Adjusting for differences in business size: Larger businesses may have different financial characteristics than smaller ones. Normalization may involve adjusting financial statements to remove the impact of business size and make them more comparable.

3. Adjusting for industry-specific factors: Different industries may have different financial characteristics, and normalization may involve adjusting financial statements to remove the impact of these differences and make them more comparable.

4. Removing one-time or non-recurring items: Normalization may involve removing one-time or non-recurring items from financial statements to make them more representative of the company's ongoing operations.

Overall, the goal of normalization in financial modeling is to adjust financial statements in a way that allows for more accurate comparison and analysis.

## Q14- Which of the following is critical to perform when evaluating revenue accounts as shown on previous income statements?

Suggested Answer: When evaluating revenue accounts as shown on previous income statements, it is critical to perform trend analyses to examine the changes in revenue over time, analyze any major fluctuations, and identify any potential risks or opportunities. Additionally, it is important to assess the quality of revenue by examining the nature of the revenue sources and the amount of receivables. Finally, it is essential to compare the revenue figures to industry benchmarks and competitor performance to gain a better understanding of the company's position.

## Q15- What are the reasons for preparing balance sheet normalisation adjustments?

Suggested Answer: There are several reasons why it may be necessary to prepare balance sheet normalization adjustments:

1. To remove the impact of non-recurring items: Non-recurring items, such as one-time charges or gains, can significantly impact a company's financial statements and distort the comparison with other companies. Normalization adjustments may be made to remove the impact of these items and provide a more accurate representation of a company's ongoing operations.

2. To adjust for differences in accounting practices: Companies may use different accounting practices or standards, which can make it difficult to compare their financial statements. Normalization adjustments may be made to adjust for these differences and make the financial statements more comparable.

3. To adjust for changes in the business: Changes in a company's business, such as acquisitions or divestitures, can significantly impact its financial statements. Normalization adjustments may be made to remove the impact of these changes and provide a more accurate representation of the company's ongoing operations.

4. To remove the impact of unusual or extraordinary items: Unusual or extraordinary items, such as natural disasters or litigation, can significantly impact a company's financial statements. Normalization adjustments may be made to remove the impact of these items and provide a more accurate representation of the company's ongoing operations.

Overall, the goal of balance sheet normalization adjustments is to provide a more accurate and comparable representation of a company's financial position.

## Q16- How can you tell whether a DCF depends too much on future assumptions?

Suggested Answer: A discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis is a method used to estimate the value of an investment based on its future cash flows. It involves forecasting the investment's future cash flows, discounting them to present value using a required rate of return, and summing the resulting values to determine the investment's intrinsic value.

There are several ways to tell whether a DCF model depends too much on future assumptions:

1. Sensitivity analysis: One way to evaluate the dependence of a DCF model on future assumptions is to perform sensitivity analysis. This involves changing the assumptions used in the model and observing the impact on the investment's intrinsic value. If the value changes significantly with small changes in the assumptions, it may indicate that the model is dependent on these assumptions.

2. Comparison with market value: Another way to evaluate the dependence of a DCF model on future assumptions is to compare the intrinsic value calculated using the model with the investment's current market value. If there is a significant discrepancy between the two, it may indicate that the model's assumptions are not in line with market expectations.

3. Use of wide range of assumptions: A DCF model that relies on a wide range of assumptions, especially those that are highly uncertain or subject to significant variation, may be dependent on these assumptions.

4. Lack of conservatism: A DCF model that does not incorporate appropriate levels of conservatism in its assumptions may be overly optimistic and depend too much on future expectations.

Overall, it is important to carefully evaluate the assumptions used in a DCF model to ensure that they are reasonable and not overly dependent on future expectations.

## Q17- How do you see if your assumptions for Terminal Value are correct?

Suggested Answer: Terminal value is the estimated value of an investment at the end of a forecast period, beyond which no explicit cash flows are forecast. It is a key component of a discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis and is typically based on assumptions about the future growth of the investment.

There are several ways to evaluate the assumptions used in calculating terminal value:

1. Sensitivity analysis: One way to evaluate the assumptions used in calculating terminal value is to perform sensitivity analysis. This involves changing the assumptions used in the calculation and observing the impact on the investment's intrinsic value. If the value changes significantly with small changes in the assumptions, it may indicate that the assumptions are not reasonable.

2. Comparison with market value: Another way to evaluate the assumptions used in calculating terminal value is to compare the intrinsic value calculated using the model with the investment's current market value. If there is a significant discrepancy between the two, it may indicate that the assumptions used in the model are not in line with market expectations.

3. Reasonableness of assumptions: It is important to ensure that the assumptions used in calculating terminal value are reasonable and realistic. For example, if the assumptions imply a very high or very low growth rate, it may indicate that the assumptions are not reasonable.

4. Use of comparable companies: Another way to evaluate the assumptions used in calculating terminal value is to compare them to the assumptions used by other analysts or to the actual historical performance of comparable companies. This can provide a benchmark for the reasonableness of the assumptions.

Overall, it is important to carefully evaluate the assumptions used in calculating terminal value to ensure that they are reasonable and not overly optimistic or pessimistic.

## Q18- Does it make sense to use the Multiples Method vs. the Gordon Growth Method?

Suggested Answer: The multiples method and the Gordon growth method are two different techniques that can be used to value an investment or a company. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations, and the choice between them will depend on the specific context and the information available.

The multiples method involves estimating the value of an investment or company by comparing it to similar investments or companies that have been recently sold or are currently being traded in the market. It involves selecting a relevant multiple (such as price-to-earnings ratio or enterprise value-to-sales ratio), and using it to calculate the value of the investment or company based on its financial performance or other characteristics.

The Gordon growth method, also known as the dividend discount model (DDM), involves estimating the value of an investment or company based on its expected future dividends. It involves forecasting the dividends that the investment or company is expected to pay in the future, discounting them to present value using