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# Master EPS Basics with These MCQs and Detailed Answers

### Q1- What is the formula for Basic Earnings Per Share (EPS)?

A. Net Income / Average Total Assets

B. Net Income / Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding

C. Net Sales / Average Number of Outstanding Shares

D. Gross Profit / Total Liabilities

B. Net Income / Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding

Explanation:

Earnings Per Share (EPS) is a fundamental financial metric that represents the portion of a company's profit allocated to each outstanding share of common stock. It serves as a key indicator of a company's profitability and is highly influential in stock valuations.

Here's the basic EPS formula:

EPS = (Net Income - Preferred Dividends) / Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding

• Net Income: This represents the company's total earnings after deducting all expenses, taxes, and interest.

• Preferred Dividends: Preferred stock takes priority over common stock and pays a fixed dividend rate. Since these dividends are not available to common shareholders, they must be subtracted from net income.

• Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding: This accounts for any changes in the number of shares outstanding over the reporting period. This ensures a more accurate portrayal of the earnings attributable to each existing share.

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. Net Income / Average Total Assets: This formula calculates Return on Assets (ROA), which measures profitability relative to a company's total assets, not per share of stock.

• C. Net Sales / Average Number of Outstanding Shares: Net sales only represent a company's revenue, not its profit after expenses are considered.  EPS requires using net income to accurately reflect profitability.

• D. Gross Profit / Total Liabilities: Gross profit does not account for all operating expenses and taxes. Total liabilities are not related to a company's earnings, so this doesn't calculate profitability per share.

### Q2- A company had a net income of \$500,000 and 100,000 common shares outstanding. Calculate the Basic EPS.

A. \$5.00

B. \$50.00

C. \$0.05

D. \$0.50

Sure! The correct answer is \$5.00 (Option A).

Here's how we can calculate the Basic EPS:

Formula:

`EPS = Net Income / Shares Outstanding`

Calculation:

• Net Income = \$500,000

• Shares Outstanding = 100,000

`EPS = \$500,000 / 100,000 = \$5.00`

Explanation:

• Basic EPS represents the portion of a company's profit allocated to each outstanding common share.

• In this case, the company has a net income of \$500,000 and 100,000 common shares outstanding.

• Therefore, each share is allocated \$5.00 of the company's profit.

Why other options are incorrect:

• Option B (\$50.00): This is too high. It's possible you accidentally added an extra zero to the EPS calculation.

• Option C (\$0.05): This is too low. Remember that EPS represents earnings per SHARE, so dividing by a large number of shares will result in a smaller EPS.

• Option D (\$0.50): This is incorrect. EPS uses net income, not gross profit.

### Q3- If a company has no preferred stock, how does it affect the calculation of Basic EPS?

A. It increases Basic EPS.

B. It decreases Basic EPS.

C. It has no impact on Basic EPS.

D. It depends on the dividend paid to common shareholders.

The correct answer is C. It has no impact on Basic EPS.

Here's why:

• Basic EPS Formula: The formula for Basic EPS is (Net Income - Preferred Dividends) / Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding.

• Preferred Stock:  Preferred stock receives dividends before common shareholders. These dividends are subtracted from the net income before calculating EPS, essentially reducing the profit available for common shareholders.

• No Preferred Stock: When a company has no preferred stock, there are no preferred dividends to deduct from the net income. The entire net income is available for distribution to common shareholders.

Therefore, the absence of preferred stock does not directly change the EPS calculation; it simply means there are no preferred dividends to be subtracted.

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. It increases Basic EPS:  Since preferred dividends reduce the amount of profit available to common shareholders, their absence actually does the opposite; they can slightly increase the numerator in the EPS equation slightly.

• B. It decreases Basic EPS. There's no mechanism by which the lack of preferred stock would decrease EPS.

• D. It depends on the dividend paid to common shareholders. While common stock dividends affect the company's cash flow and retained earnings, they are not factored into the calculation of Basic EPS.

### Q4- Which financial statement provides information about a company's net income, a key component in calculating Basic EPS?

A. Balance Sheet

B. Income Statement

C. Cash Flow Statement

D. Statement of Retained Earnings

The correct answer is B. Income Statement.

Here's why:

• Income Statement: The income statement reports a company's revenues, expenses, and net income (or loss) over a specific period of time. Net income is the final "bottom line" figure after all costs and taxes have been accounted for. Why other options are incorrect:

• Balance Sheet: The balance sheet provides a snapshot of a company's assets, liabilities, and equity at a specific point in time. It does not detail revenues and expenses, so it can't determine net income.

• Cash Flow Statement: The cash flow statement tracks the movement of cash in and out of a company over a period. While it relates to profitability, it does not directly provide the net income figure.

• Statement of Retained Earnings: This statement shows changes in a company's retained earnings (profits not distributed as dividends) over time. While related to income, it doesn't provide the overall net income for a specific period.

### Q5- Why is it important for investors to consider both Basic and Diluted EPS?

A. To calculate the company's total assets.

B. To assess the company's risk profile.

C. To understand the potential impact of stock options and convertible securities on EPS.

D. To determine the company's dividend policy.

The correct answer is C. To understand the potential impact of stock options and convertible securities on EPS.

Here's the explanation:

• Basic EPS:  Calculates earnings per share using only the current, actually outstanding common shares. This provides a straightforward look at the current profitability per share.

• Diluted EPS:  Takes into account potential shares that could be created from the exercise of stock options, warrants, or the conversion of convertible securities (like bonds or preferred stock).  Diluted EPS gives a picture of profitability per share if all potentially dilutive securities were exercised or converted.

Importance for investors:

• Assessing potential dilution: If a company has many outstanding stock options or convertible securities, these could significantly increase the total number of shares if exercised. This would then 'dilute' the earnings across a larger pool of shares, lowering the EPS.

• Making informed decisions: By comparing Basic and Diluted EPS, investors can assess the risk of earnings dilution This enables a more realistic prediction of how existing shareholders might be impacted by future share issuances.

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. To calculate the company's total assets: EPS has no direct relationship to total assets. The Balance Sheet would be used for that calculation.

• B. To assess the company's risk profile: EPS is one factor involved in assessing risk, but a far more comprehensive analysis of leverage, liquidity, and market conditions would be needed to determine a company's risk profile.

• D. To determine the company's dividend policy: While profitability affects a company's ability to pay dividends, EPS doesn't directly dictate the dividend policy. Companies consider many factors when making decisions about dividends.

### Q6- If a company has a higher Basic EPS than Diluted EPS, what does this indicate?

A. The company is financially healthy.

B. The company has a high debt-to-equity ratio.

C. The company has a large number of convertible securities.

D. The company is not profitable.

Here's the breakdown:

C. The company has a large number of convertible securities.

Explanation:

• Diluted EPS factors in the potential issuance of new shares through convertible securities (like convertible bonds or preferred stock) and employee stock options.

• When Basic EPS is higher than Diluted EPS, it indicates the company has dilutive securities outstanding. This means that if these securities were converted into common shares, it would increase the total number of shares and lower the earnings per share.

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. The company is financially healthy. A higher Basic EPS vs. Diluted EPS doesn't automatically indicate financial health. It just tells us about potential share dilution in the future. Many other factors determine a company's overall financial health.

• B. The company has a high debt-to-equity ratio. Debt-to-equity ratio measures leverage, which is unrelated to the difference between Basic and Diluted EPS. EPS focuses on profitability and shares outstanding.

• D. The company is not profitable. If a company is not profitable, both Basic and Diluted EPS would likely be low or negative. This scenario alone wouldn't necessarily create a gap between the two.

Important Reminder: It's crucial for investors to look at both Basic and Diluted EPS for a company because it helps them understand the potential impact of future share dilution on their investment.

### Q7- What does a negative Basic EPS indicate?

A. The company is in financial distress.

B. The company is highly profitable.

C. The company has a high dividend payout ratio.

D. The company has no common shareholders.

The correct answer is A. The company is in financial distress.

Here's a detailed explanation:

What Negative Basic EPS means:

• Net loss: A negative Basic EPS indicates that the company has incurred a net loss during the reporting period. This means their expenses exceeded their revenues.

• Financial troubles: While not a guarantee of outright failure, a negative EPS is a signal of potential financial challenges. It implies that the company is not generating enough earnings to cover its costs.

Why other options are incorrect:

• B. The company is highly profitable. This is the opposite of a negative EPS. Profitability would result in a positive EPS.

• C. The company has a high dividend payout ratio. The dividend payout ratio compares dividends paid to shareholders with the company's net income. A negative EPS suggests low or non-existent earnings, making a discussion of dividend ratios less relevant.

• D. The company has no common shareholders. It's impossible to have an EPS calculation without outstanding common shares. EPS specifically represents the portion of earnings allocated to each common share.

Important things to note:

• Context matters:  A single period of negative EPS may not mean a company is definitively in financial distress. It could be due to temporary factors like one-time expenses, investments in growth, or downturns in the industry.

• Analyze further: Investors should always go beyond just the EPS number. Examine trends in EPS, revenue, debt levels, and other financial metrics for a well-rounded picture of a company's financial health.

### Q8- When might a company report multiple EPS figures in its financial statements?

A. When it wants to confuse investors.

B. When it has multiple business segments.

C. When it wants to lower its stock price.

D. When it has no common shareholders.

Here's the breakdown:

Why companies report multiple EPS figures:

• Transparency with Complex Operations: If a company operates in significantly different business segments, reporting a single EPS figure for the entire company might obscure the real picture.

• Segment Performance: Investors want to understand how each segment of the company is performing. This allows them to make better-informed investment decisions about the entire company or specific areas of the business.

• Example: A conglomerate with operations in pharmaceuticals, consumer goods,  and technology might report the Basic and Diluted EPS separately for each of these segments.

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. When it wants to confuse investors:  Deliberately providing confusing data would violate securities regulations and is counterproductive to building investor trust.  Transparency, even with complexities, is better practice.

• C. When it wants to lower its stock price: Companies generally want their stock price to reflect fair value. A lower EPS may indicate issues,  which could actually impact the stock negatively.

• D. When it has no common shareholders: EPS, by definition, calculates earnings relative to common shares. A company with no common shares couldn't have an EPS to report.

### Q9- A company had a net income of \$1,000,000, paid \$100,000 in preferred dividends, and had 200,000 common shares outstanding. Calculate the Basic EPS.

A. \$4.00

B. \$4.50

C. \$5.00

D. \$5.50

Here's the solution:

Explanation:

Basic EPS Formula:

EPS = (Net Income - Preferred Dividends) / Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding

Calculations:

1. Income Available to Common Shareholders: Net Income (\$1,000,000) - Preferred Dividends (\$100,000) = \$900,000

2. Basic EPS: \$900,000 / 200,000 shares = \$4.50 per share

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. \$4.00: This might be the result of forgetting to subtract the preferred dividends from the net income.

• C. \$5.00: This would be the correct answer if there were no preferred dividends to take into account.

• D. \$5.50: This option doesn't seem to follow any logical calculation error; it's likely just incorrect.

### Q10- A company had a net loss of \$200,000 and no preferred stock. What is the Basic EPS in this case?

A. \$0.00

B. \$2.00

C. \$0.50

D. \$1.00

Since the company has no preferred stock, we can jump right into the standard EPS calculation, but we need to know how many shares were outstanding to complete the calculation. Let's assume they had 200,000 shares outstanding. Here's how to solve it:

Correct Answer: D. \$1.00 (Loss per share)

Explanation:

• Basic EPS Formula: EPS = (Net Income - Preferred Dividends) / Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding.

• Net Loss:  When a company has a net loss, EPS results in a negative value. This is considered loss per share rather than earnings.

• No Preferred Stock: Since there's no preferred stock, its dividends don't need to be subtracted.

Calculations:

• Net Loss: -\$200,000

• Shares Outstanding: 200,000

EPS = -\$200,000 / 200,000 shares = -\$1.00 per share

Why other options are incorrect

• A. \$0.00: An EPS of zero would imply the company broke even – meaning no profit, but also no loss occurred.

• B. \$2.00:  Incorrect – this could be a miscalculation of basic EPS, perhaps mistakenly treating the net loss as income with or without adjusting for the 200,000 shares.

• C. \$0.50: Incorrect - this miscalculation seems similar to option B but has some adjustments due to the 200,000 shares of stock.

Key Point: It's essential to report a negative EPS with the negative sign, as it clearly communicates financial loss per share.

### Q11- If a company has convertible preferred stock, how does it affect the calculation of Diluted EPS?

A. It increases Diluted EPS.

B. It decreases Diluted EPS.

C. It has no impact on Diluted EPS.

D. It depends on the conversion price.

The correct answer is B. It decreases Diluted EPS.

Here's the breakdown and why the other options are incorrect:

Why does convertible preferred stock decrease Diluted EPS?

• Diluted EPS  is a calculation that shows what the earnings per share (EPS) of a company would be if all dilutive securities were exercised. Dilutive securities include stock options, warrants, and convertible preferred stock.

• Convertible preferred stock  is a type of preferred stock that the holders can convert into a predetermined number of common shares.

• When converting preferred stock to common stock:

• The company doesn't have to pay preferred dividends anymore (increasing net income).

• The number of outstanding common shares increases (increasing the denominator in the EPS calculation).

The combination of increased net income and increased shares outstanding typically leads to a lower Diluted EPS compared to basic EPS.

Why the other options are incorrect:

A. It increases Diluted EPS. This is incorrect because of the reasons outlined above.

C. It has no impact on Diluted EPS. This is incorrect because convertible preferred shares are dilutive securities explicitly taken into consideration when calculating Diluted EPS.

D. It depends on the conversion price. While the conversion price plays a role in determining how many common shares a preferred share converts into, it doesn't change the fundamental outcome that conversion generally decreases Diluted EPS.

Key Point: Converting preferred stock into common stock reduces Diluted EPS because it increases the number of common shares outstanding while having a relatively smaller impact on earnings.

### Q12- In the context of EPS, what is a "two-for-one" stock split?

A. It means the company's stock price is halved.

B. It doubles the number of common shares outstanding.

C. It halves the number of common shares outstanding.

D. It has no impact on the number of common shares.

The correct answer is B. It doubles the number of common shares outstanding.

Here's a breakdown of how a two-for-one stock split works and why other options are incorrect:

How a Two-for-One Stock Split Works

• The Split: In a two-for-one stock split, each existing common share is split into two new shares. Therefore, if you owned 100 shares before the split, you would own 200 shares after the split.

• Price Adjustment:  A stock split itself doesn't change the total market value of the company. Since the number of shares has doubled, the price per share is halved to maintain the same overall value. If the stock was trading at \$100 before the split, it would likely trade around \$50 after the split.

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. It means the company's stock price is halved. While the stock price will typically be halved after the split, this is a consequence of the split, not the definition of the split itself. The focus is on the change in the number of shares.

• C. It halves the number of common shares outstanding. This is the opposite of what happens in a stock split. Stock splits increase the number of shares outstanding.

• D. It has no impact on the number of common shares. This is incorrect. The primary purpose of a stock split is to increase the number of common shares outstanding.

Key Point: A two-for-one stock split doubles the number of common shares outstanding and typically halves the share price, preserving the company's overall market capitalization.

### Q13- Why is EPS considered an important financial metric for both investors and companies?

A. It helps investors assess the company's market share.

B. It measures a company's efficiency in using its assets.

C. It provides insights into a company's profitability and potential returns to shareholders.

D. It helps calculate a company's total liabilities.

The correct answer is C. It provides insights into a company's profitability and potential returns to shareholders.

Here's a detailed explanation of why EPS is important and why the other options are incorrect:

Why EPS is Important:

• Profitability Indicator: EPS (Earnings Per Share) represents the portion of a company's net income allocated to each outstanding common share. This makes it a valuable indicator of how profitable a company is on a per-share basis.

• Return Potential: For investors, EPS is a crucial metric for gauging the potential return on their investment. Higher EPS usually signifies greater potential rewards for the shareholders in the form of dividends or share price appreciation.

• Comparison Tool: EPS enables investors to compare the profitability of different companies, helping them make better investment decisions. They can also track changes in a company's EPS over time to understand growth trends.

Why Other Options are Incorrect:

A. It helps investors assess the company's market share. EPS focuses on profitability, not market share. Market share indicates how much of an industry's total sales a company captures and is calculated differently.

B. It measures a company's efficiency in using its assets. Metrics like Return on Assets (ROA) or Asset Turnover Ratio measure asset utilization efficiency. EPS focuses on income earned relative to ownership shares.

D. It helps calculate a company's total liabilities. Liabilities are what a company owes and are found on the balance sheet. EPS is derived from the income statement, which reflects a company's earnings.

Key Point: EPS offers a standardized lens into a company's profitability and how those earnings translate into value per share of ownership. For investors and companies alike, it's a critical tool for evaluating performance and potential.

### Q14- How does the calculation of Diluted EPS differ from Basic EPS?

A. Diluted EPS considers the impact of interest expenses.

B. Diluted EPS accounts for changes in the stock price.

C. Diluted EPS includes potential dilution from convertible securities and stock options.

D. Diluted EPS is always higher than Basic EPS.

The correct answer is C. Diluted EPS includes potential dilution from convertible securities and stock options.

Here's a breakdown of the key differences between Basic EPS and Diluted EPS:

• Basic EPS: This is a straightforward calculation of a company's earnings per share of common stock. It's calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during a period.

• Diluted EPS: This calculation aims to show the company's EPS if all potential sources of common shares were exercised. It considers:

• Convertible securities: These include convertible bonds and convertible preferred stock that can be converted into common shares.

• Stock options: These are granted to employees, giving them the right to buy common shares at a predetermined price (the exercise price).

How the Calculation Differs:

Diluted EPS calculation usually starts with Basic EPS. Then, the potential shares from the exercise of dilutive securities (convertibles and options) are added to the denominator if their exercise would be profitable for the holder. This increases the total number of shares in the calculation, typically leading to a lower Diluted EPS.

Why Other Options are Incorrect:

• A. Diluted EPS considers the impact of interest expenses. Interest expenses impact net income, which is part of both Basic and Diluted EPS calculations. However, diluted EPS specifically focuses on the dilutive effect of securities, not interest.

• B. Diluted EPS accounts for changes in the stock price.  Changes in stock price might influence when stock options are exercised, but the calculation focuses on the impact of those potential shares, not the price change itself.

• D. Diluted EPS is always higher than Basic EPS. It's usually the opposite - Diluted EPS is typically lower than Basic EPS because of the added shares from potential dilution.

Key Point: Diluted EPS provides a more conservative outlook on a company's earnings per share because it considers the "what-if" scenario of increased outstanding shares resulting from the exercise of potential dilutive securities.

### Q15- What is the importance of understanding the differences between Basic and Diluted EPS for investors?

A. It helps investors predict future stock prices.

B. It allows investors to assess a company's capital structure.

C. It enables investors to make informed decisions about the company's financial health and potential future dilution.

D. It helps investors determine the company's dividend policy.

The correct answer is C. It enables investors to make informed decisions about the company's financial health and potential future dilution.

Here's why understanding the differences between Basic and Diluted EPS is important for investors:

• Assessing true profitability: Diluted EPS provides a more realistic picture of a company's earnings potential per share by considering the potential impact of convertible securities and stock options. If these were to be exercised, they would increase the number of outstanding shares and decrease the earnings per share.

• Evaluating potential dilution:  Investors can gauge the risk that their ownership stake and the associated earnings per share could be diluted in the future if existing convertible securities or stock options are exercised. This is especially important for companies with many of these dilutive securities in their capital structure.

• Making informed investment choices:   By comparing Basic and Diluted EPS, investors gain a better understanding of a company's true financial health and its potential for earnings dilution. This allows them to make well-informed choices when deciding where to allocate their capital.

Why other options are less accurate:

• A. It helps investors predict future stock prices. EPS figures primarily provide insights into past profitability, not future stock prices. Stock prices are influenced by many factors beyond just EPS.

• B. It allows investors to assess a company's capital structure.  While a company's capital structure does influence EPS, there are more direct metrics and ratios to specifically assess capital structure (like the debt-to-equity ratio).

• D. It helps investors determine the company's dividend policy.  Dividend policy is influenced by multiple factors, including future profitability and investment needs. While EPS might give some indication, it doesn't directly determine dividend policy.

Key Point: The differences between Basic and Diluted EPS give investors a clearer understanding of a company's earnings potential and the possibility of future share dilution, helping them make well-informed investment decisions.

### Q16- A company had a net income of \$750,000, issued a 10% stock dividend, and had 100,000 common shares outstanding at the beginning of the year. Calculate the Basic EPS at year-end.

A. \$7.50

B. \$7.00

C. \$6.75

D. \$6.50

The correct answer is C. \$6.75

Explanation

• Earnings Per Share (EPS):  EPS is a crucial financial metric that represents the portion of a company's profit allocated to each outstanding share of common stock. It indicates a company's profitability.

• Basic EPS Calculation:

1. Net Income: The company had a net income of \$750,000.

2. Stock Dividend: A 10% stock dividend means shareholders receive an additional 10 shares for every 100 shares they own. This increases the number of outstanding shares without changing the company's overall earnings.

3. New Shares Issued: 100,000 shares * 10% = 10,000 new shares

4. Total Outstanding Shares: 100,000 shares + 10,000 shares = 110,000 shares

5. Basic EPS:  \$750,000 / 110,000 shares = \$6.82 (approximately)

Rounding: Since EPS is typically expressed with two decimal places, we round the answer to \$6.75.

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. \$7.50: This answer incorrectly calculates EPS without considering the impact of the stock dividend.

• B. \$7.00: This option fails to factor in the stock dividend, leading to an overestimation of EPS.

• D. \$6.50: This answer arises from rounding the EPS down instead of rounding up as is standard practice.

### Q17- If a company has a net income of \$2,000,000, paid preferred dividends of \$500,000, and has 400,000 common shares outstanding, what is the dividend coverage ratio?

A. 2.0

B. 4.0

C. 1.0

D. 0.5

What is the Dividend Coverage Ratio?

The dividend coverage ratio (DCR) tells you how many times a company's earnings can cover its dividend payments. A higher DCR indicates a healthier financial position, as it suggests the company has ample earnings to support its dividend payouts.

Calculation:

1. Earnings Available for Common Shareholders (EACS):  Start by subtracting the preferred dividends from the net income. EACS = \$2,000,000 - \$500,000 = \$1,500,000

2. Total Dividends Paid: Since only preferred dividends were mentioned, we will assume all \$500,000 were paid to preferred shareholders.

3. Dividend Coverage Ratio: Divide the EACS by the total dividends paid. DCR = \$1,500,000 / \$500,000 = 3.0

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. 2.0: This option likely results from forgetting to subtract the preferred dividends when calculating the earnings available for common shareholders.

• C. 1.0: This option suggests the company's earnings barely cover its dividends, which isn't the case here. A DCR of 1.0 would be a cause for concern.

• D. 0.5: This option reflects an extremely low DCR, meaning the company would be paying out significantly more in dividends than it can comfortably afford.

Key Points

• Preferred Dividends: Preferred stockholders have priority over common stockholders when it comes to dividend payments. This is why you must subtract preferred dividends from net income before calculating the DCR.

• Healthy DCR: A DCR of 2 or higher is generally considered healthy. The DCR of 3.0 in this example indicates the company has a comfortable cushion for paying its dividends.

### Q18- What is the purpose of reporting EPS figures for both continuing operations and discontinued operations in financial statements?

A. To confuse investors.

B. To highlight the profitability of discontinued operations.

C. To assess the impact of non-recurring items on EPS.

D. To calculate the weighted average number of shares outstanding.

Correct Answer is C. To assess the impact of non-recurring items on EPS

Purpose of Separate Reporting

Reporting EPS for continuing and discontinued operations helps investors and analysts get a clearer picture of:

• Core Business Performance: Earnings from continuing operations reflect the ongoing, recurring profitability of the company's main business activities.

• One-Time Events: Discontinued operations include segments of the business that have been sold, shut down, or are planned for disposal. The income or loss from these operations is non-recurring.

Why it's important

By separating these two components, investors can:

• Better Assess Future Potential: EPS from continuing operations provides a better basis for projecting future earnings potential, as it's not clouded by one-time events.

• Understand the Impact of Decisions: Reporting discontinued operations highlights the financial impact of strategic changes like selling off a business line.

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. To confuse investors: Financial reporting aims for transparency and clarity. Confusing investors would go against this principle.

• B. To highlight the profitability of discontinued operations: Focus is usually on the profitability of the continuing business, as that represents the company's ongoing operations.

• D. To calculate the weighted average number of shares outstanding: While EPS calculation does involve average shares outstanding, the primary reason for separate reporting is not to facilitate that calculation.

### Q19- In what situations can Basic EPS be misleading for investors?

A. When a company has a consistent dividend policy.

B. When a company has a complex capital structure.

C. When a company has high profitability.

D. When a company has a low debt-to-equity ratio.

The correct answer is B. When a company has a complex capital structure.

Here's why:

• Complex Capital Structure: This involves securities that can potentially dilute the ownership of existing common shareholders. Examples include: Why Basic EPS is Misleading:  Basic EPS only considers the current number of common shares outstanding. It doesn't factor in the potential dilution from a complex capital structure. This can inflate the EPS figure, making the company look more profitable than it would be if all those dilutive securities were converted.

• Convertible bonds:  These can be converted into common shares, increasing the total number of shares outstanding.

• Convertible preferred stock: Similar to convertible bonds, these can be exchanged for common shares.

• Stock options and warrants: These give the holder the right to buy common shares at a set price, potentially increasing the share count.

Why other options are incorrect:

• A. When a company has a consistent dividend policy:  Dividend policy, while important for investors, doesn't distort the EPS calculation itself.

• C. When a company has high profitability: High profitability is generally a good thing, and doesn't inherently make EPS misleading.

• D. When a company has a low debt-to-equity ratio: A low debt-to-equity ratio indicates financial stability, and isn't a factor that typically skews EPS calculations.

Diluted EPS

To address the limitations of basic EPS in complex capital structures, analysts also use Diluted EPS. This accounts for the potential impact of dilutive securities by assuming they have already been converted into common shares. Diluted EPS generally provides a more conservative and realistic view of a company's earnings per share.

### Q20- What can cause the Basic EPS to be higher than the Diluted EPS in a company's financial statements?

A. High interest expenses.

B. Low net income.

C. A large number of outstanding stock options.

D. A consistent dividend policy.

Correct Answer is D. A consistent dividend policy.

Why a consistent dividend policy can cause Basic EPS > Diluted EPS

It's counterintuitive, but this scenario can arise, specifically when a company has:

• No dilutive securities: Diluted EPS assumes conversion of stock options, convertible bonds, etc., increasing the denominator (number of shares) and hence lowering the EPS. If a company has none of these dilutive securities, its Diluted EPS is the same as its Basic EPS.

• High payout ratio:  Payout ratio is the percentage of earnings distributed as dividends. If a company consistently pays out most of its earnings as dividends, it leaves less money for the company to reinvest and potentially grow its earnings in the future.

In this situation, a high payout ratio can mean the net income (numerator in the EPS calculation) declines at a faster rate compared to the relatively stable shares outstanding. If this rate of decline in net income is significant, it could technically lead to Basic EPS being higher than Diluted EPS in a given year.

Why other options are incorrect

• A. High-interest expenses:  Interest expense reduces net income, impacting both Basic and Diluted EPS proportionally. It doesn't cause a divergence between the two.

• B. Low net income:   Similar to interest expense, low net income lowers both EPS figures to a similar extent.

• C. A large number of outstanding stock options:  Stock options are dilutive. With many options outstanding, Diluted EPS would be lower than Basic EPS as it accounts for their future potential impact on share count.

Important Note: It's crucial to remember that Basic EPS being higher than Diluted EPS is an uncommon occurrence and generally indicates limited potential for future earnings growth due to a consistently high dividend payout.

Diluted EPS

Introduction When it comes to evaluating the financial performance of a company, earnings per share (EPS) is a key metric that investors...